Nostos and Algos

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ΦΑΚΟΣ

Γελά ο οπάλινος καθρέφτης
στη λάμψη των ματιών σου
κομένες λέξεις, λυπημένες
για το πολύ λίγο που τραγούδησες
του ήλιου σου που κρύβεται πίσω
απ’ του δέντρου τον κορμό
μια προθεσμία που απαιτεί
την προσοχή και μιαν απόφασή σου.
Μα ξέχασες τίς γρίλλιες σου ν’ ανοίξεις
το φώς του ήλιου πάντα μαρτυρά
μ’ άσπρα σεντόνια τα καλυμένα
μυστικά, σαν δυο σπυριά σταριού
στο χέρι σου που κρύβεις
μικρή ευτυχία και κουβέντες
άσκοπες, στεγνές

και λές—

φιλόσοφος θα γίνω την επόμενη φορά
του κόσμου τα προβλήματα να λύσω.

LENS

Opaline lens smiling
in the glitter of your eyes
static words, sorrowful
for the little you sang
to your sun hidden
behind the tree trunk
deadline that demands
attention and your decision
and you keep your blinds shut
sunlight always reveals
secrets the white bed-sheets cover
like two grains of laughter
you hide in your palm
little happiness and
aimless, dry talk

and you say—

philosopher next time I’ll become
the problems of the world to solve.

 

http://www.ekstasiseditions.com

 

 

Quotes by Nietzsche

 

Philosophy
________________________________________
How I understand the philosopher — as a terrible explosive, endangering everthing… my concept of the philosopher is worlds removed from any concept that would include even a Kant, not to speak of academic “ruminants” and other professors of philosophy…
from Nietzsche’s Ecce Homo, s 3.2.3, Walter Kaufmann transl.
________________________________________
Knapsack of the Metaphysicians.– Those who boast so mightily of the scientificality of their metaphysics should receive no answer; it is enough to pluck at the bundle which, with a certain degree of embarrassment, they keep concealed behind their back; if one succeeds in opening it, the products of that scientificality come to light, attended by their blushes: a dear little Lord God, a nice little immortality, perhaps a certain quantity of spiritualism, and in any event a whole tangled heap of ‘wretched poor sinner’ and Pharisee arrogance.
from Nietzsche’s Assorted Opinions and Maxims,s. 12, R.J. Hollingdale transl.
________________________________________
Even today many educated people think that the victory of Christianity over Greek philosophy is a proof of the superior truth of the former – although in this case it was only the coarser and more violent that conquered the more spiritual and delicate. So far as superior truth is concerned, it is enough to observe that the awakening sciences have allied themselves point by point with the philosophy of Epicurus, but point by point rejected Christianity.
from Nietzsche’s Human, all too Human, s.68, R.J. Hollingdale transl.
________________________________________
Socrates.– If all goes well, the time will come when one will take up the memorabilia of Socrates rather than the Bible as a guide to morals and reason… The pathways of the most various philosophical modes of life lead back to him… Socrates excels the founder of Christianity in being able to be serious cheerfully and in possessing that wisdom full of roguishness that constitutes the finest state of the human soul. And he also possessed the finer intellect.
from Nietzsche’s The Wanderer and his Shadow,s. 86, R.J. Hollingdale transl.

~www.theperspectivesofnietzsche.com/nietzsche/nchrist.html

 

http://www.theperspectivesofnietzsche.com/nietzsche/nchrist.html

Übermensch//ΥΠΕΡΑΝΘΡΩΠΟΣ

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Übermensch — The Solution

“It returns, what finally comes home to me is my own Self and what of myself has long been in strange lands and scattered among all things and accidents.”
Thus Spoke Zarathustra, The Wanderer
The word ‘hero’, coined in English in the fourteen century, derives from the Greek Ἥρως (hero, warrior). Nietzsche had a deeply heroic streak in his soul, and a hero archetype became a motivating drive in his life and in his philosophy. He confessed in Ecce Homo: “I am by nature warlike. The attack is among my instincts… I attack only causes that are victorious… where I stand alone.” It may well have been the heroism of exceptional men that appealed to him in Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey and in Shakespeare’s tragedies, which he read as a young teenager. He later rediscovered the hero’s mythical journey in the musical dramas of Wagner.
Jung believed that the archetype of a hero is the oldest and the most powerful of all archetypes, and considered religious figures such as Buddha, Christ or Mohammed to be its various personifications (in The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious). The hero’s journey is ultimately a journey towards self-integration. The final destination, which Jung called ‘individuation’, is a state of wholeness and completeness, and it involves the unification of opposites. Indeed, coincidentia oppositorum (coincidence of the opposites), a concept borrowed from Heraclitus, is a propelling force in becoming the Übermensch. The constant tension and energy of the conflict becomes a source of inspiration and creativity; the strife leads to “new and more powerful births”. The superabundance of any force inevitably produces its opposite and an inner balance can be achieved by uniting (or overcoming, to use Nietzsche’s term) these opposites. The restoration of equilibrium is the essence of healing. The Übermensch advocates a new ‘great health’ which he equates with an all-embracing totality whereby “all opposites are blended into a unity” (The Gay Science, 382). The conscious and the unconscious, good and evil, the earthly and the spiritual synchronize in contrapuntal harmony. A noble soul is no longer divided; it becomes an ‘individual’ not a ‘dividual’, as Nietzsche has stressed. The element of transformation (or resurrection) lies at the heart of the hero’s message. The great hero (der Überheld) overcomes himself, sublimates his impulses and passions, and owes nothing to anyone, not even to God. In the process of ‘becoming what one is’, the Übermensch unites reason and passion, order and chaos, discipline and ecstasy. But to become ‘all one’, and be free, ultimately means to be alone, taking full responsibility for one’s life. There is no scapegoat to take the blame for one’s misfortunes; not the Jews, not the Christians, not the Muslims, not even the Devil himself. One is sentenced to freedom and its aloneness:
“During the longest period of human past nothing was more terrible than to feel that one stood by oneself. To be alone, to experience things by oneself, neither to obey nor to rule, to be an individual – that was not a pleasure but a punishment; one was sentenced ‘to individuality’. Freedom of thought was considered a discomfort itself.”
The Gay Science
ΥΠΕΡΑΝΘΡΩΠΟΣ — Η ΛΥΣΗ
Αυτός ο αδύναμος και ευάλωτος άνθρωπος πίστευε ότι «η ιδέα της θέλησης, της δύναμης και του υπεράνθρωπου έχουν σημασία και όχι οι χριστιανικές αντιλήψεις για την ευσέβεια, την καρτερία και την ισότητα». Στα έργα του, βρίσκουμε επεξεργασμένη κι εμπλουτισμένη τη σπορά των λόγων του Μαξ Στρίνερ που απετέλεσε την κοινή αφετηρία τόσο του αναρχισμού όσο και του ανηθικισμού και της φιλοσοφίας του υπεράνθρωπου. Ο Στρίνερ είχε πει:
«Αν το Κράτος είναι μια κοινωνία ανθρώπων και όχι μια συνάθροιση από Εγώ, τότε το Κράτος δεν μπορεί να υπάρξει χωρίς την ηθική, πάνω στην οποία πρέπει να στηρίζεται. Γι’ αυτό, το Κράτος και Εγώ είμαστε εχθροί».
Ο Νίτσε το ερμήνευσε:
«Το κράτος οργανώθηκε όταν μια νικήτρια φυλή δημιούργησε καθεστώς τρομερής καταπίεσης του νικημένου λαού, πολυπληθέστερου αλλά ανοργάνωτου. Τα ένστικτα των υποταγμένων κατέληξαν σε εσωστρέφεια. Η δύναμη της ενέργειας και ο πόθος για δύναμη στράφηκαν ενάντια στον ίδιο τον άνθρωπο. Εμφανίστηκαν έτσι νέα ιδανικά: η απάρνηση του εγώ, ο αλτρουισμός. Η τάση του αλτρουισμού είναι δείγμα ενστίκτου σκληρότητας και οι τύψεις πόθος για βασανιστήρια. Οι άνθρωποι πίστεψαν ότι η ενοχή τους ήταν οφειλή προς τους προγόνους. Οφειλή που έπρεπε να την αναγνωρίσουν με τη θυσία της υποταγής. Αυτός ο φόβος για τους προγόνους βρίσκεται μεταμορφωμένος στον θεό. Γι’ αυτό η θρησκεία, και κυρίως ο χριστιανισμός, είναι πληγή για την ανθρωπότητα».
Με όλα αυτά, ο Νίτσε βρέθηκε να εκπροσωπεί τον αχαλίνωτο ατομικισμό και να γίνει η ιδεολογική σημαία των καπιταλιστών, την περίοδο της ανόδου των πλουσίων του χρήματος. Και πάνω στις απόψεις του για τον υπεράνθρωπο θέλησαν να χτίσουν οι ναζί θεωρητικοί της υπεροχής της άριας φυλής. Όμως, οι θέσεις του Νίτσε για τον υπεράνθρωπο ανήκουν στην τρίτη ομάδα του έργου του και δεν μπορούν να αποκοπούν από τις προηγούμενες δύο. Πολύ περισσότερο, που αναπτύχθηκαν παράλληλα και δεν αποτελούν παραγωγή ξεχωριστών χρονολογικών περιόδων.
~www.wikipedia.org

 

Friedrich Nietzsche//Φρίντριχ Νίτσε

 

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Friedrich Nietzsche

Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche 15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher, cultural critic, poet, and Latin and Greek scholar whose work has exerted a profound influence on Western philosophy and modern intellectual history. Beginning his career as a classical philologist before turning to philosophy, he became the youngest-ever occupant of the Chair of Classical Philology at the University of Basel in 1869, at age 24. He resigned in 1879 due to health problems that plagued him most of his life, and he completed much of his core writing in the following decade. In 1889, at age 44, he suffered a collapse and a complete loss of his mental faculties. He lived his remaining years in the care of his mother (until her death in 1897) and then his sister Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche, and died in 1900.
Nietzsche’s body of writing spanned philosophical polemics, poetry, cultural criticism, aphorism, and fiction while displaying a fondness for metaphor and irony. His thought drew variously on philosophy, art, history, religion, and science, and engaged with a wide range of subjects including morality, metaphysics, language, epistemology, value, aesthetics, and consciousness. Among the chief elements of his philosophy are his radical rejection of the existence and value of objective truth; his atheistic critique of religion and morality, and of Christianity in particular, which he characterized as propagating a slave morality in the service of cultural decline and the denial of life; his characterization of the human subject as the expression of competing wills, collectively understood as the will to power; and the aesthetic affirmation of existence in response to the “death of God” and the profound challenge of nihilism. His later work, which saw him develop influential (and frequently misunderstood) concepts such as the  and the doctrine of eternal recurrence, became increasingly preoccupied with the creative powers of the individual to overcome social, cultural, and moral contexts toward a state of aesthetic health.
After his death, Elizabeth Forster-Nietzsche became the curator and editor of her brother’s manuscripts, reworking Nietzsche’s unpublished writings to fit her own German nationalist ideology while often contradicting or obfuscating his stated opinions, which were explicitly opposed to antisemitism and nationalism. Through these published editions, Nietzsche’s name became associated with fascism and Nazism, although 20th-century scholars have contested this interpretation of his work. His thought enjoyed renewed popularity in the 1960s, and his ideas have since had a profound impact on twentieth and early-twenty-first century thinkers across philosophy—especially in schools of continental philosophy such as existentialism, postmodernism, and post-structuralism—as well as art, literature, psychology, politics, and popular culture.
Φρίντριχ Νίτσε
Ο Φρίντριχ Βίλχελμ Νίτσε (γερμ. Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche) (Ραίκεν, 15 Οκτωβρίου 1844[1] – Βαϊμάρη, 25 Αυγούστου 1900[1]) ήταν σημαντικός Γερμανός φιλόσοφος, ποιητής, συνθέτης και φιλόλογος. Έγραψε κριτικά δοκίμια πάνω στην θρησκεία, την ηθική, τον πολιτισμό, την φιλοσοφία και τις επιστήμες, δείχνοντας ιδιαίτερη κλίση προς την χρήση μεταφορών, ειρωνείας και αφορισμών.
Οι κεντρικές ιδέες της φιλοσοφίας του Νίτσε περιλαμβάνουν τον “θάνατο του Θεού”, την ύπαρξη του υπερανθρώπου, την ατέρμονη επιστροφή, τον προοπτικισμό καθώς και την θεωρία της ηθικής κυρίων – δούλων. Αναφέρεται συχνά ως ένας από τους πρώτους «υπαρξιστές» φιλοσόφους. Η ριζική αμφισβήτηση από μέρους του της αξίας και της αντικειμενικότητας της αλήθειας έχει οδηγήσει σε αμέτρητες διαμάχες και η επίδρασή του παραμένει ουσιαστική, κυρίως στους κλάδους του υπαρξισμού, του μεταμοντερνισμού και του μεταστρουκτουραλισμού.
Ξεκίνησε την καριέρα του σαν κλασικός φιλόσοφος, κάνοντας κριτικές αναλύσεις σε αρχαιοελληνικά και Ρωμαϊκά κείμενα, προτού εντρυφήσει στην φιλοσοφία. Το 1869, σε ηλικία 24 ετών, διορίστηκε καθηγητής στο πανεπιστήμιο της Βασιλείας, στην έδρα της Κλασικής Φιλολογίας, όντας ο νεότερος που έχει πετύχει κάτι ανάλογο. Παραιτήθηκε το καλοκαίρι του 1879 εξαιτίας των προβλημάτων υγείας που τον ταλάνιζαν σχεδόν όλη του την ζωή. Σε ηλικία 44 ετών, το 1889, υπέστη νευρική κατάρρευση, η οποία αργότερα διεγνώσθη ως συφιλιδική «παραλυτική ψυχική διαταραχή», διάγνωση η οποία αμφισβητείται. Η επανεξέταση των ιατρικών φακέλων του Φρειδερίκου Νίτσε δείχνει ότι κατά πάσα πιθανότητα πέθανε από όγκο στον εγκέφαλο, ενώ η μετά θάνατον σπίλωση του ονόματός του οφείλεται κυρίως στο αντι-ναζιστικό μέτωπο. Τα τελευταία χρόνια της ζωής του ανέλαβε την φροντίδα του η μητέρα του, μέχρι τον θάνατό της το 1897, και έπειτα η αδελφή του, Ελίζαμπεθ Φούρστερ-Νίτσε, μέχρι τον θάνατό του, το 1900.
Εκτός από την φροντίδα του, η Ελίζαμπεθ Φούρστερ-Νίτσε ανέλαβε χρέη εκδότριας και επιμελήτριας των χειρογράφων του. Ήταν παντρεμένη με τον Μπέρναρντ Φούρστερ, εξέχουσα μορφή του γερμανικού εθνικιστικού και αντισημιτικού μετώπου, για χάρη του οποίου ξαναδούλεψε αρκετά από τα ανέκδοτα χειρόγραφα του Νίτσε, στην προσπάθειά της να τα «μπολιάσει» με τις ιδέες του, αντιβαίνοντας ριζικά με τις απόψεις του φιλόσοφου, οι οποίες ήταν ξεκάθαρα εναντίον του αντισημιτισμού και του εθνικισμού (βλ. Η κριτική του Νίτσε στον Αντισημιτισμό και τον Εθνικισμό). Με την βοήθεια των εκδόσεων της Φούρστερ-Νίτσε, ο Νίτσε έγινε συνώνυμο του Γερμανικού μιλιταρισμού και του Ναζισμού, αν και αρκετοί μελετητές του στο δεύτερο μισό του 20ου αιώνα έχουν καταφέρει να αντιστρέψουν την παρερμήνευση των ιδεών του.
~Wikipedia in both English and Greek http://www.wikipedia.org

Beyond Morality

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Nietzsche: Beyond Morality

German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche shared Kierkegaard’s conviction that philosophy should deeply reflect the personal concerns of individual human beings. But for Nietzsche, this entailed rejection of traditional values, including the Christian religion. Nietzche’s declaration of “the death of god” draws attention to our culture’s general abandonment of any genuine commitment to the Christian faith.
According to Nietzsche’s Die Götzendämmerung (Twilight of the Idols) (1889), Western philosophers since Socrates represent a degeneration of the natural strengths of humanity. A noble taste for heroic styles of life can only be corrupted and undermined by the interminable debates of dialectical reason. Traditional Western morality philosophy—and the Christian religion in particular—therefore opposes a healthy life, trying vainly to escape unfortunate circumstances by destroying native human desires.
Only perverse tenacity and cowardice, he believed, encourages us to cling to this servile morality, It would be more brave, more honest, and much more noble to cut ourselves loose and dare to live in a world without God. In such a world, death is not to be feared, since it represents nothing more significant than the fitting conclusion of a life devoted to personal gain.
All of this is, of course, a variety of nihilism. Nietzsche insists that there are no rules for human life, no absolute values, no certainties on which to rely. If truth can be achieved at all, it can come only from an individual who purposefully disregards everything that is traditionally taken to be “important.” Such a super-human person {Ger. Übermensch}, Nietzsche supposed, can live an authentic and successful human life.
Beyond Good and Evil
Nietzsche offered a quasi-historical account of the harmful consequences of traditional ethics in Zur Geneologie der Moral (On the Genealogy of Morals) (1887). “Good” initially and properly designated only the right of those individuals with social and political power to live their lives by sheer force of will. But a “priestly” caste, motivated by their resentment of their natural superiors, generated a corrupt alternative that would appeal to “the herd” of less capable persons, turning values inside-out. In the “slave morality” endorsed by religious establishments, Nietzsche argued, forceful action which should be admired gets labelled as “evil,” while the cowardly tendency to think through everything in advance is transformed into the supposed virtue of prudence.
Genuine autonomy, Nietzsche maintained, could only mean freedom from all external constraints on one’s behavior. In this (natural and admirable) state of existence, each individual human being would live a life without the artificial limits of moral obligation. No other sanction on conduct would be necessary than the natural punishment involved in the victory of a superior person over a vanquished enemy.
But the wish of lesser people to secure themselves against interference from those who are better gives rise to a false sense of moral responsibility. The natural fear of being overwhelmed by a superior foe becomes internalized as the self-generated sense of guilt, and individual conscience places severe limits on the normal exercise of human desire. Thus, on Nietzsche’s view, the fundamental self-betrayal of the human race is to submit its freedom to the ficticious demands of an imaginary god. Afraid to live by the strength of our own wills, we invent religion as a way of generating and then explaining our perpetual sense of being downtrodden and defeated in life.

http://www.philosophypages.com/hy/5v.htm

ALBERT CAMUS

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Albert Camus (1913—1960)

Albert Camus was a French-Algerian journalist, playwright, novelist, writer of philosophical essays, and Nobel laureate. Though neither by advanced training nor profession a philosopher, Camus nevertheless through his literary works and in numerous reviews, articles, essays, and speeches made important, forceful contributions to a wide range of issues in moral philosophy – from terrorism and political violence to suicide and the death penalty. In awarding him its prize for literature in 1957, the Nobel committee cited the author’s persistent efforts to “illuminate the problem of the human conscience in our time,” and it is pre-eminently as a writer of conscience and as a champion of imaginative literature as a vehicle of philosophical insight and moral truth that Camus was honored by his own generation and is still admired today. He was at the height of his career, at work on an autobiographical novel, planning new projects for theatre, film, and television, and still seeking a solution to the lacerating political turmoil in his native Algeria, when he died tragically in an automobile accident in January, 1960.
Albert Camus quotes//Γνωμικά του Αλμπέρτου Καμύ
“You will never be happy if you continue to search for what happiness consists of. You will never live if you are looking for the meaning of life.”

Δεν θα είσαι ευτυχισμένος αν συνεχίσεις ν’ αναρωτιέσαι τί είναι ευτυχία. Δεν θα ζήσεςι ποτέ τη ζωή αν συνεχίσεις την αναζήτηση για το τί είναι η ζωή.

“In the depth of winter, I finally learned that within me there lay an invincible summer.”

Στο μέση του χειμώνα διαπίστωσα ότι κρύβω μέσα μου ένα ακατανίκητο καλοκαίρι.

“Man is the only creature who refuses to be what he is.”

Ο άνθρωπος είναι το μοναδικό ον που αρνείται να παραδεχτεί ποιος είναι.

“Nobody realizes that some people expend tremendous energy merely to be normal.”

Κανείς δεν καταλαβαίνει ότι μερικοί άνθρωποι σπαταλούν πολλή ενέργεια για να `ναι απλά φυσιολογικοί.

“Should I kill myself, or have a cup of coffee?”

Ν’ αυτοκτονήσω ή να πιω ένα καφέ;

“Live to the point of tears.”

Ζήσε μέχρι σημείου δακρύων.

“You know what charm is: a way of getting the answer yes without having asked any clear question.”

Γνωρίζεις τί υπέροχο είναι να σου απαντούν, ‘ναι’ δίχως καν να έχεις κάνεικάποια σαφή ερώτηση;

~ Μετάφραση στα ελληνικά Μανώλη Αλυγιζάκη/translation by Manolis Aligizakis

Édouard Schuré

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Eduard (Édouard) Schuré (January 21, 1841 in Strasbourg – April 7, 1929 in Paris) was a French philosopher, poet, playwright, novelist, music critic, and publicist of esoteric literature.

Biography

Schuré was the son of a doctor in the Alsatian town of Strasbourg, who died when Édouard was fourteen years old. Schuré mastered French as well as German, and was influenced by German and French culture in his formative years. He received his degree in law at the University of Strasbourg, but he never entered into practice. Schuré called the three most significant of his friendships those with Richard Wagner, Marguerita Albana Mignaty and Rudolf Steiner.[1]
Schuré’s interest and studies led to an extensive knowledge of German literature. The discovery of Wagner’s “music drama” Tristan and Isolde impressed him sufficiently to seek—and obtain—Wagner’s personal acquaintance.
In France, he published his first work Histoire du Lied—a history of the German folk song, which earned him some recognition in the country of his family. With the publication of the essay Richard Wagner et le Drame Musical, he established himself as a major French Wagner expert and advocate of the time.
When the Franco-German war of 1870-71 poisoned the German arts for many French, it would seem that Schuré was not immune from this influence. His nationalism is reflected in his remarks of this time—and later in his life—in a comparison of glorified Celtism (France) and a negatively viewed “Teutonism” (Germany).
On a trip to Italy during this time he met, twenty years his junior, a Greek girl, Marguerita Albana Mignaty, whom he subsequently described as his “muse”, although he himself was married.
After the tide of war had ebbed, Schuré reestablished his relationship with Wagner. In 1873, he met the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche; with frequent contact they shared enthusiasm for Wagner. The cultist veneration of Wagner, however, seeded Schuré’s alienation from the composer.
Schuré now turned increasingly to the esoteric and the occult; his major influence being the famous French occultist-scholar Fabre d’ Olivet. In 1884, he met the founder of the Theosophical Society Helena Petrovna Blavatsky. Although unwelcome in the Theosophical Society, he nevertheless entered. In 1889, he published, after some smaller works on similar topics, his major work Les Grands Initiés (The Great Initiates).
In 1900, the actress Marie von Sivers came into contact with him because she intended to translate his works into German (The Great Initiates, The Sacred Drama of Eleusis and The Children of Lucifer). At the German Section of the Theosophical Society, he met the Austrian philosopher and later founder of Anthroposophy, Rudolf Steiner. In 1906, Sivers brought about a meeting between Schuré and Steiner. Schuré was deeply impressed and thought of Steiner as an authentic ‘initiate’ in line with his The Great Initiates. After hearing Steiner lecture in Paris for the first time in 1906, Schuré in an ecstatic state ran home and wrote down the entirety of the lecture from memory. This first lecture, and the other lectures in the series (which Schuré wrote down) were published as Esoteric Cosmology.[2] Subsequently, Steiner and von Sivers staged Schuré’s esoteric dramas at the following Theosophical Congresses in Berlin and Munich. Schuré’s The Children of Lucifer, served as a precursor of Rudolf Steiner’s own esoteric dramas.
In 1908 Schuré brought out Le Mystère Chrétien et les Mystères Antiques,[3] a French translation of Steiner’s work Christianity as Mystical Fact and the Mysteries of Antiquity.[4] With the outbreak of World War I, Schuré’s relationship with Steiner and his wife became strained. Schuré threw in the two secret intentions about Germanic and Pan and stepped out of Steiner’s Anthroposophical Society. Four years after the war, Schuré re-consolidated his friendship with Steiner.
In subsequent years, Schuré published his autobiography.

Esoteric and literary meaning

Schuré’s The Great Initiates is described by some as a masterpiece. In it, he describes the path allegedly followed by some of the ancient philosophers in search of profound esoteric knowledge, often called the “initiation”, as describing the process of becoming a mystic master or spiritual healer.
Those familiar with Rama, Hermes Trismegistus, Socrates, Jesus, Orpheus will find frequent references in Schuré’s work. Schuré pursued the notion that a secret esoteric knowledge was known to them all, that this group were among the pillars of civilization and represented the founders of spiritual and philosophical ways of being as well as in some cases—though contrary to their message—religions. Schuré recognized that the path to a harmonious world was not to be found through a bigoted denial of the value found by other civilizations by their own sages. He wanted people to recognize the value of democracy in spiritual, philosophical, and religious ways. .
Schuré wrote a considerable number of books and plays. His plays enjoyed relative fame in his days in Europe, and some of them were put on stage by Steiner. He also influenced Russian composer Sergei Prokofiev.

~Wikipedia, the free Encyclopedia

Τάσου Λειβαδίτη-Εκλεγμένα Ποιήματα/Tasos Livaditis-Selected Poems

Tasos Livaditis_Vanilla

ΜΙΑ ΚΟΙΝΗ ΚΑΜΑΡΑ

Ανέβαινα απ’ ώρα τη σκάλα, μου άνοιξε μια γριά με μια μαύρη
σκούφια, “εδώ έχουν πεθάνει πολλοί” μου λέει “γι αυτό ό,τι κι αν
πεις δεν ακούγεται”, τότε είδα κάποιον που σερνόταν κάτω απ’ τον
καναπέ, “τί ψάχνει;” ρώτησα, “ο Χριστός” μου λέει “θα `ρθει κι
άλλες φορές”, η γυναίκα έριχνε τα χαρτιά, τρόμαξα καθώς είδα το
χέρι της ν’ ανεβαίνει, “θα χάσεις πολλές φορές το δρόμο” μου λέει,
“μα πώς θα τον χάσω” της λέω “εγώ είμαι ανήπηρος και δεν περ-
πατάω, άλλος σέρνει το καροτσάκι”, “κι όμως θα τον χάσεις” μου
λέει, “είσαι μια πουτάνα” της λέω “να με ταράζεις άγιον άνθρωπο
—κι εσύ, αφού κανένας δε σε θέλει, γιατί κουνιέσαι;”, “δεν κουνιέ-
μαι εγώ” μου λέει “το καντήλι τρέμει”, την λυπήθηκα, “σε ξέρω”
τής λέω “δέν αποκλείεται, μάλιστα, να `χουμε ζήσει πολύν καιρό
μαζί”, η ώρα ήταν επτά ακριβώς, κοίταξα το ρολόι μου κι έδειχνε
κι εκείνο το ίδιο, “τώρα αρχίζει” σκέφτηκα με απόγνωση, κι η
γριά με συρτά βήματα πήγε και μαντάλωσε την πόρτα.

A COMMON ROOM

I was going up the stairs for a while when an old woman with a black
hood opened the door “everyone has died here” she says to me
“whatever you say nobody listens”; then I saw someone crawling
under the sofa “what is he looking for?” I asked “Christ” she says to me
“will come a few more times”; the woman started to read the cards
I was scared when I saw her hand pointing at me “you will lose
your way many a time” she says to me “how can I lose it” I say
“I’m crippled, I don’t walk, someone else pulls the cart”, “you will still
lose it”, “you are a whore” I say to her “and you disturb me, a holy man
—and you, if no one wants you why do you tease me?”, “I don’t tease
you, it’s the candle that flickers”; I felt sorry for her. “I know you”
I say to her “in fact it’s possible that we lived together long time ago”
the time was exactly seven o’clock; I looked at my watch and it showed
the same time “now she’ll start again” I thought in despair and
the old woman with slow steps went and locked the door.

~Τάσου Λειβαδίτη-Εκλεγμένα Ποιήματα/Μετάφραση Μανώλη Αλυγιζάκη
~Tasos Livaditis-Selected Poems/Translated by Manolis Aligizakis
http://www.libroslibertad.ca

ΔΗΜΗΤΡΗΣ ΛΙΑΝΤΙΝΗΣ/DIMITRIS LIANTINIS

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Βιογραφία/Biography

Ο συγγραφέας παιδαγωγός φιλόσοφος και ποιητής Δημήτρης Λιαντίνης, αναπληρωτής καθηγητής της Φιλοσοφίας της αγωγής και της Διδακτικής των Ελληνικών μαθημάτων στο Πανεπιστήμιο Αθηνών μέχρι το 1998, γεννήθηκε το 1942 στην Κοινότητα Πολοβίτσας του Νομού Λακωνίας.
Τελείωσε το εξατάξιο Γυμνάσιο της Σπάρτης το 1960. Σπούδασε στο Τμήμα Φιλολογίας της Φιλοσοφικής Σχολής του Πανεπιστημίου Αθηνών, από την οποία έλαβε το πτυχίο του το 1966. Από το 1968 μέχρι το 1970 υπηρέτησε ως φιλόλογος στη Μέση Εκπαίδευση. Από το 1970 μέχρι το 1972 σπούδασε στο Πανεπιστήμιο του Μονάχου. Από το 1973 μέχρι το 1975 υπηρέτησε εκ νέου στη Μέση Εκπαίδευση. Το 1975 διορίστηκε βοηθός στο Εργαστήριο Παιδαγωγικής του Πανεπιστημίου Αθηνών. Το 1977 έλαβε το διδακτορικό του δίπλωμα με εισηγητή τον Καθηγητή της Φιλοσοφίας Ευάγγελο Μουτσόπουλο από τη Φιλοσοφική Σχολή του Πανεπιστημίου Αθηνών με βαθμό «άριστα» και θέμα «Η παρουσία του ελληνικού πνεύματος στις ελεγείες του Duino του Ράινερ Μαρία Ρίλκε».
Δίδαξε Φιλοσοφία της αγωγής, Παιδαγωγική και Διδακτική στο Τμήμα Φιλοσοφίας – Παιδαγωγικής – Ψυχολογίας και Παιδαγωγικά στο Τμήμα Κοινωνικής Θεολογίας του Πανεπιστημίου Αθηνών.
Εκτός του Πανεπιστημίου στην Ελλάδα δίδαξε στο Μαράσλειο Διδασκαλείο στη Μετεκπαίδευση των δασκάλων, στα ΠΕΚ Κηφισιάς, Περιστερίου και Πειραιά και στη Σχολή της Αστυνομίας. Έχει δώσει διαλέξεις στη Ναυτική Σχολή Πολέμου και στη στρατιωτική Σχολή Υγειονομικού.
Έγραψε βιβλία φιλοσοφικού συλλογισμού με ιδιαίτερη προσωπική χαρακτηριστική ποιητική γραφή, αλλά ακριβολόγο πνεύμα.
Το 1972 γνώρισε στο Μόναχο και το 1973 παντρεύτηκε τη Νικολίτσα Γεωργοπούλου, Καθηγήτρια της Εισαγωγής στη Φιλοσοφία και Ιστορίας της Φιλοσοφίας του Πανεπιστημίου Αθηνών. Την 1.6.1998 ο Λιαντίνης εξαφανίστηκε από την οικογένειά του και το πανεπιστημιακό του περιβάλλον.
ΒΙΒΛΙΑ
ΕΞΥΠΝΟΝ ΕΝΥΠΝΙΟΝ. ΟΙ ΕΛΕΓΕΙΕΣ ΤΟΥ DUINO ΤΟΥ RILKE, ΑΘHΝΑ 1977
ΧΑΣΜΑ ΣΕΙΣΜΟΥ. Ο ΦΙΛΟΣΟΦΙΚΟΣ ΣΟΛΩΜΟΣ, Αθήνα 1978 (Βραβείο Ακαδημίας Αθηνών)
FR. NIETZSCHE. ΙΔΕ Ο ΑΝΘΡΩΠΟΣ, Προλόγισμα – Μετάφραση Δ. Λιαντίνη, Αθήνα 1979
ΗΟΜΟ EDUCANDUS, ΦΙΛΟΣΟΦΙΑ ΤΗΣ ΑΓΩΓΗΣ, Αθήνα 1984
Ο ΝΗΦΟΜΑΝΗΣ, Η ΠΟΙΗΤΙΚΗ ΤΟΥ ΣΕΦΕΡΗ, Αθήνα 1986
ΠΟΛΥΧΡΟΝΙΟ, ΣΤΟΑ ΚΑΙ ΡΩΜΗ, Αθήνα 1987
ΤΑ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΑ, Αθήνα 1994
ΓΚΕΜΜΑ, Αθήνα 1997
ΩΡΕΣ ΤΩΝ ΑΣΤΡΩΝ. ΠΟΙΗΜΑΤΑ, Αθήνα 2006

ENGLISH
The author, educator, philosopher and poet Dimitris Liantinis, associate professor of Philosophy of education and Didaktik of the teaching of Greek at the University of Athens until 1998, was born in 1942 in the village of Polovitsa of the prefecture of Lakonia.
He finished the High School of Sparta in 1960. He studied at the Department of Philology of the Faculty of Philosophy of the University of Athens, graduating in 1966. Between 1968 and 1970 he taught philology in Secondary High School Education. Between 1970 and 1972 he studied at the University of Munich. Between 1973 and 1975 he taught again in High School Education. In 1975 he was appointed as assistant in the Laboratory of Pedagogy of the University of Athens. In 1977 he received his PhD from the University of Athens, under Professor of Philosophy Evangelos Moutsopoulos of the Faculty of Philosophy, with distinction, the subject of his thesis being “The presence of Greek essence in the elegies of Duino by Rainer Maria Rilke.
Outside of the University of Athens he also taught in Greece at the Maraslios Academy in Postgraduate Teacher training, at the PEK of Kifisia, Peristeri and Piraeas, and at the School of Police. He has given lectures at the Naval School of War and at the Military School of Health.
He authored books of philosophical reflection with a particular personal and characteristic poetic style, but with a succinct flavour.
In 1972 in Munich he met Nikolitsa Georgopoulou, Professor of Introduction to Philosophy and History of Philosophy at the University of Athens, whom he married in 1973.
On the 1st of June 1998, Liantinis disappeared from his family and his university environment.
HIS BOOKS
1. Awakened Dream. (Rainer Maria Rilke’s Elegies of Duino. Philosophical Interpretation).
2. Chasm of an Earthquake. (The Poetry of Greek National Poet Dionysios Solomos. Philosophical Interpretation).
3. Friedrich Nietzsche. Ecce Homo. (Introduction and Greek Translation).
4. Manic Sobriety. (The Poetry of Georgios Seferis. Philosophical Interpretation).
5. Homo educandus. (Philosophy of Education).
6. Stoa and Rome. (The Influence of stoic Philosophy in Rome’s politics).
7. Ellinika. (The Didactic of Greek Language and Literature).
8. Gemma. (Philosophical Approach of existential Problems of Man).
9. Times of Stars. (Poems).
GERMAN
Der Schriftsteller Pädagoge, Philosoph und Dichter Dimitris Liantinis, Professor für Erziehungsphilosophie und Didaktik der griechischen Fächer in der Universität Athen bis 1998, wurde 1942 in der Gemeinde Polovitsa in Lakonia Griechenland geboren.
Er bekam sein Abitur 1960 vom Lyzeum in Sparta. Er studierte griechische Philologie in der Philosophischen Fakultät der Universität Athen. Er bekam sein Diplom 1966. Von 1968 bis 1970 arbeitete er als Gymnasiallehrer. Von 1970 bis 1972 studierte er in der Universität München. Von 1973 bis 1975 ging er wieder in den Schuldienst. Im Jahre 1975 bekam er eine Assistentenstelle im Pädagogischen Institut der Universität Athen. Im Jahre 1977 promovierte er mit summa cum laude im Fach Philosophie in der Philosophischen Fakultät der Universität Athen. (Thema der Dissertation: Die Gegenwart des griechischen Geistes in den Duineser Elegien von Rainer Maria Rilke).
In Griechenland hat er in verschiedenen Höheren Schulen gelesen.
In seinem didaktischen und schriftlichen Werk befasst er sich mit der Philosophie der Dichtung, der Philosophischen Anthropologie und der Philosophie der Erziehung. Selbst Dichter und ausgezeichneter Kenner der griechischen Sprache in ihrer langen Geschichte schrieb er philosophische Bücher und Gedichte. Seine persönliche Schrift ist stilistisch erkennbar. Seine Bücher sind bestseller geworden.
Im Jahre 1972 hat er in München Nikolitsa Georgopoulou, Professorin für Einführung in die Philosophie und Geschichte der Philosophie an der Universität Athen, kennengelernt und hat sie 1973 geheiratet.
Im Juni 1998 verschwand er unbekannterweise.
Seine Bücher
1. Der Wachtraum (Die Duineser Elegien von Rainer Maria Rilke).
2. Erdbebensspalte. (Philosophische Interpretation der Dichtung vom griechischen Nationaldichter Dionysios Solomos).
3. Friedrich Nitzsche: Ecce Homo (Einführung und Übersetzung).
4.Manisch für Nüchternheit. (Die Dichtung vom Nobelpreisträger Giorgos Seferis in philosophischer Ansicht).
5. Homo educandus. (Philosophie der Erziehung).
6. Stoa und Roma.( Der Einfluss der stoischen Philosophie auf die Politik Romas).
7. Ellinika. (Die Didaktik der griechischen Sprache und Literatur).
8. Gemma.( Ein Buch mit verschieden existenziellen Themen des Menschen).
9. Die Stunden der Sterne (Gedichte)

The Meaning of Myths

Myths or mythos for the ancient people was an allegoric vehicle to awaken the soul from its forgetful past for those who were spiritual and sensitive enough to recognize the veiled truth behind it.  The Greek word μύθος= myth, derives from the sound‘mou’=murmur, which we produce when our lips are closed and the word Μυστήριο=mystery= inexplicable, adjoins with it. Together they form a secret communicating organ for every soul who is ready to recollect the forgotten experience from their previous incarnations.

Every mystical truth when presented by a normal open concrete language, usually is misconceived and rejected by the undeveloped intellectually insensitive individuals.  For this reason philosophers, mystics, epic poets and even prose writers of all times used myths, allegorizes and parables to veil the truth from the unready ones and to unveil for those who were ready to understand.

The soul of man possesses the capabilities to recognize and respond to truth that the myth carries, even before the mind grasped and analyze it. Most of us have been touched with this type of phenomena in the past and especially in our youth, before our minds and souls have been wounded and cobbled by dogmatism and wrong education. Soul responds sensitively to truth and its poetical beauty that encompasses the myth –and which has been lost through countless incarnations. Here, we see clearly the Socratic theory that our soul pre-existed and that all knowledge is nothing more than αναθύμισης=anathimisis= recollections from the past.

The inclination for a certain talent and the easier understanding of some life issues, are nothing more than recollection, says the English Platonist Thomas Taylor. The aim of a myth is not to entertain the senses and the mind by telling interesting stories, but to awaken the soul from its lethargic past. The Greek word αλήθεια =alitheia= truth, is derived from the word λήθη= lithe= forget -and the letter a’ in the front which means to throw away the forgetful-ness. In other words, the meaning of this word it speaks clearly, that truth searching is nothing more then throwing away the forgetfulness of the past or ανάμνησης= anamnesis= remembrance, as Plato used to call.

Every free and undamaged soul wakes up joyfully like a child by listening to the poetic beauty and the truth that myth unveils.

It feels exited, like re-meeting old friends and known events from its forgotten past. This is the grace and the glory that the myth brings- and of which the ancient Hellenes have so generously endowed us with.

The exegesis (explanation) of myth is a valuable exercise for the wandering soul. Although initially it appears as a fable, nevertheless when analyzed, creates enthusiasm and reveals the depth and glory that contains.

Plato was one of the greatest skilful masters of myth producers with his brilliant written dialogues.  He often used myths, imaginations and metaphors to pass the knowledge and the deep mystery, which our life hides. He proceeded bit by bit in lengthy dialectic conversations, manufacturing with scrupulous care the foundations of truth, leaving no ignorance and microbes behind, neither allowing lies nor doubts to creep between his celestial edifices. Suddenly without notice or argument, he calmly finishes his intellectual masterpiece to glisten everlastingly in the minds and souls of humanity.

When Socrates was conversing with his friends about soul and knowledge, he introduced myths and metaphors experimentally and almost hesitatingly at first, as if he was entering a holy ground.  As he new well the misunderstanding of the myth initially by those unfamiliar and has taken the necessary steps to make it easier conceivable. Great care is needed to interpret a myth and especially Plato’s. When he speaks of a human soul turning to an animal, he doesn’t mean that man becomes a beast, but he wants to say that when man cares only for his sensual pleasures (hedonism), he descends voluntary to an animal level, without intellectual and spiritual thoughts as higher human being.

Soul is an abstract word without material substance. No language ever yet managed to outline its subtle nature. For this reason Plato often used symbols, myths and fantasies to lead the human intellect higher and closer to their soul. The myths in his dialogues of Gorgias, Phaedra, Pheudo, Republic and Symposium, are the most valuable treasures that he left us behind to read.

Homer with his story of Achilles heel did not mean surely that the only vulnerable spot of Achilles, was his heel, but he was allegorizing that for every bad act that we do, we will not escape our punishment no matter where we will hide our self’s, it will find us like in the secret venerable heel of king Achilles.

The well-known myth of Odysseus, who was wandering in the stormy sea for ten years before reaching his Ithaca home, meant that every soul goes through testing hurdles and sufferings before it reached intellectual awakening, of spiritual destination.

The ancient sphinx that gave a riddle to passing pedestrians with a risk of losing their life if not answering correctly had metaphoric meaning. It was saying that our life has new riddles daily to be solved, and if we don’t answer them correctly, our future life will not be safe.

Resuming for a moment the enormous and admirable Hellenic mythological inheritance, I ask myself with a heart yearning: Why we are not taught this valuable truth and analyze them from our young age? Why such enormous valuable treasures remain untaught and hidden away from our schools and societies today?  Although we see clearly the advanced of their culture, we remain indifferent and apathetic to learn or study them theoretically.

What would we loose by being taught the meanings of these mythological treasures from the past? Would it not be useful to know little more about the meaning of our present earthy existence, – rather to accept blind beliefs without any knowledge of our life purpose what so ever?

~Karalis Dimitris

South Africa
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